Host stack test framework


The goal of the Host stack test framework (hs-test) is to ease writing and running end-to-end tests for VPP’s Host Stack. End-to-end tests often want multiple VPP instances, network namespaces, different types of interfaces and to execute external tools or commands. With such requirements the existing VPP test framework is not sufficient. For this, Go was chosen as a high level language, allowing rapid development, with Docker and ip being the tools for creating required topology.

Go’s package testing together with go test command form the base framework upon which the hs-test is built and run.

Anatomy of a test case


  • Tests use hs-test’s own docker image, so building it before starting tests is a prerequisite. Run sudo make to do so

  • Docker has to be installed and Go has to be in path of both the running user and root

  • Root privileges are required to run tests as it uses Linux ip command for configuring topology

Action flow when running a test case:

  1. It starts with running ./test. This script is basically a wrapper for go test and accepts its parameters, for example following runs a specific test: ./test -run TestNs/TestHttpTps

  2. go test compiles package main along with any files with names matching the file pattern *_test.go and then runs the resulting test binaries

  3. The go test framework runs each function matching naming convention. Each of these corresponds to a test suite

  4. Testify toolkit’s suite.Run(t *testing.T, suite TestingSuite) function runs the suite and does the following:

  1. Suite is initialized. The topology is loaded and configured in this step

  2. Test suite runs all the tests attached to it

  3. Execute tear-down functions, which currently consists of stopping running containers and clean-up of test topology

Adding a test case

This describes adding a new test case to an existing suite. For adding a new suite, please see Modifying the framework below.

  1. To write a new test case, create a file whose name ends with _test.go or pick one that already exists

  2. Declare method whose name starts with Test and specifies its receiver as a pointer to the suite’s struct (defined in framework_test.go)

  3. Implement test behaviour inside the test method. This typically includes the following:

  1. Retrieve a running container in which to run some action. Function getContainerByName(name string) from HstSuite struct serves this purpose an object representing a container and start it with run() method

  2. Execute hs-test action(s) inside any of the running containers. Function execAction(args string) from container.go does this by using docker exec command to run hs-test executable. For starting an VPP instance inside a container, the VppInstance struct can be used instead

  3. Run arbitrary commands inside the containers with exec(cmd string)

  4. Run other external tool with one of the preexisting functions in the utils.go file. For example, use wget with startWget(..) function

  5. Use exechelper or just plain exec packages to run whatever else

  6. Verify results of your tests using assert methods provided by the test suite, implemented by HstSuite struct

Example test case

Two docker containers, each with its own VPP instance running. One VPP then pings the other. This can be put in file extras/hs-test/my_test.go and run with command ./test -run TestMySuite.

package main

import (

func (s *MySuite) TestMyCase() {
        serverVppContainer := s.getContainerByName("server-vpp")

        serverVpp := NewVppInstance(serverContainer)

        clientVppContainer := s.getContainerByName("client-vpp")

        clientVpp:= NewVppInstance(clientContainer)

        result, err := clientVpp.vppctl("ping")
        s.assertNil(err, "ping resulted in error")

Modifying the framework

Adding a test suite

  1. Adding a new suite takes place in framework_test.go and by creating a new file for the suite. Naming convention for the suite files is suite-name-test.go where name will be replaced by the actual name

  2. Make a struct with at least HstSuite struct as its member. HstSuite provides functionality that can be shared for all suites, like starting containers

    type MySuite struct {
  3. Implement SetupSuite method which testify runs before running the tests. It’s important here to call setupSuite(s *suite.Suite, topologyName string) and assign its result to the suite’s teardownSuite member. Pass the topology name to the function in the form of file name of one of the yaml files in topo-network folder. Without the extension. In this example, myTopology corresponds to file extras/hs-test/topo-network/myTopology.yaml This will ensure network topology, such as network interfaces and namespaces, will be created. Another important method to call is loadContainerTopology(topologyName string) which will load containers and shared volumes used by the suite. This time the name passed to method corresponds to file in extras/hs-test/topo-containers folder

    func (s *MySuite) SetupSuite() {
            // Add custom setup code here
            s.teardownSuite = setupSuite(&s.Suite, "myTopology")
  4. In order for go test to run this suite, we need to create a normal test function and pass our suite to suite.Run. This is being at the end of framework_test.go

    func TestMySuite(t *testing.T) {
            var m MySuite
            suite.Run(t, &m)
  5. Next step is to add test cases to the suite. For that, see section Adding a test case above

Adding a topology element

Topology configuration exists as yaml files in the extras/hs-test/topo-network and extras/hs-test/topo-containers folders. Processing of a network topology file for a particular test suite is started by the setupSuite function depending on which file’s name is passed to it. Specified file is loaded by LoadTopology() function and converted into internal data structures which represent various elements of the topology. After parsing the configuration, Configure() method loops over array of topology elements and configures them one by one.

These are currently supported types of network elements.

  • netns - network namespace

  • veth - veth network interface, optionally with target network namespace or IPv4 address

  • bridge - ethernet bridge to connect created interfaces, optionally with target network namespace

  • tap - tap network interface with IP address

Similarly, container topology is started by loadContainerTopology(), configuration file is processed so that test suite retains map of defined containers and uses that to start them at the beginning of each test case and stop containers after the test finishes. Container configuration can specify also volumes which allow to share data between containers or between host system and containers.

Supporting a new type of topology element requires adding code to recognize the new element type during loading. And adding code to set up the element in the host system with some Linux tool, such as ip. This should be implemented in netconfig.go for network and in container.go for containers and volumes.

Communicating between containers

When two VPP instances or other applications, each in its own Docker container, want to communicate there are typically two ways this can be done within hs-test.

  • Network interfaces. Containers are being created with -d --network host options, so they are connected with interfaces created in host system

  • Shared folders. Containers are being created with -v option to create shared volumes between host system and containers or just between containers

Adding a hs-test action

Executing more complex or long running jobs is made easier by hs-test actions. These are functions that compartmentalize configuration and execution together for a specific task. For example, starting up VPP or running VCL echo client.

The actions are located in extras/hs-test/actions.go. To add one, create a new method that has its receiver as a pointer to Actions struct.

Run it from test case with container’s method execAction(args) where args is the action method’s name. This then executes the hs-test binary inside of the container and it then runs selected action. Action is specified by its name as first argument for the binary.

Note: When execAction(args) runs some action from a test case, the execution of hs-test inside the container is asynchronous. The action might take many seconds to finish, while the test case execution context continues to run. To mitigate this, execAction(args) waits pre-defined arbitrary number of seconds for a sync file to be written by hs-test at the end of its run. The test case context and container use Docker volume to share the file.

Adding an external tool

If an external program should be executed as part of a test case, it might be useful to wrap its execution in its own function. These types of functions are placed in the utils.go file. If the external program is not available by default in Docker image, add its installation to extras/hs-test/Dockerfile.vpp in apt-get install command. Alternatively copy the executable from host system to the Docker image, similarly how the VPP executables and libraries are being copied.

Eternal dependencies

  • Linux tools ip, brctl

  • Standalone programs wget, iperf3 - since these are downloaded when Docker image is made, they are reasonably up-to-date automatically

  • Programs in Docker images - see envoyproxy/envoy-contrib in utils.go

  • http_server - homegrown application that listens on specified address and sends a test file in response

  • Non-standard Go libraries - see extras/hs-test/go.mod

Generally, these will be updated on a per-need basis, for example when a bug is discovered or a new version incompatibility issue occurs.